Korean Speech-Language & Hearing Association(KSHA)

Korean Speech-Language & Hearing Association(KSHA) - Vol. 29 , No. 3

[ ORIGINAL ARTICLE ]
Journal of Speech-Language & Hearing Disorders - Vol. 29, No. 3, pp.69-79
Abbreviation: JSLHD
ISSN: 1226-587X (Print) 2671-7158 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Jul 2020
Received 20 Jun 2020 Revised 18 Jul 2020 Accepted 28 Jul 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15724/jslhd.2020.29.3.069

A Study of Basic Vocabulary Selection for Treating First- and Second-Grade Elementary School Students With Language Disorders
Hyun Jin Chang1, *
1Department of Speech and Hearing Therapy, Catholic University of Pusan, Professor

학령기 언어장애 아동 중재를 위한 기초 어휘 선정 연구
장현진1, *
1부산가톨릭대학교 언어청각치료학과 교수
Correspondence to : Hyun Jin Chang, PhD E-mail : changhj26@cup.ac.kr


Copyright 2020 ⓒ Korean Speech-Language & Hearing Association.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Funding Information ▼

Abstract
Purpose:

In the process of vocabulary intervention, it is very important to know how to use which vocabulary. This study aims constitute the list according to the importance, category, and part-of-speech of the basic vocabulary of language disorders in school age. Also, we want to provide basic vocabulary for effective vocabulary treatment of school-aged children with language disorders.

Methods:

This study was conducted in preliminary and main stages. The preliminary research stage formed vocabulary in the examination tools and studies related to school age. As a result, the vocabulary list consisted of 517 items. A questionnaire was developed based on the vocabulary selected in the preliminary study. The questionnaire evaluated the importance of school-age vocabulary on a Likert scale to 10 SLP.

Results:

The basic learning vocabulary consisted of a vocabulary with a criticality equilibrium average of 3.0 or higher answered by SLP. The number of basic learning vocabulary was 514 for the treatment of speech disorders in school age. Second, the ratio of basic vocabulary to nouns was 49.8 percent, to verbs, 21.6 percent, and to adjectives 11.6 percent. Third, the basic vocabulary was classified into 17 categories. The distribution of vocabulary categories was a high proportion of act and status areas. The percentage of basic vocabulary according to category was 20.8% for action, and 16.2% for other.

Conclusions:

Based on the vocabulary list from the results of this study, a textbook for the treatment of school-aged children with language disorders could be another milestone in vocabulary treatment.

초록
목적:

어휘 중재를 하는 과정 중에 어떤 방법으로 어떤 어휘를 활용해 할 것인가는 매우 중요한 문제로 여긴다. 따라서 본 연구는 학령기 언어장애 기초 어휘의 중요도, 범주와, 품사에 따라 목록을 구성하여, 학령기 언어장애 아동의 중재에 있어 효율적인 어휘지도를 위한 기초 어휘를 제공하고자 한다.

방법:

이 연구는 예비연구와 본 연구 단계로 구성하였다. 예비연구에서는 학령기 어휘와 관련된 검사도구 및 연구에서 517개의 어휘를 추출하였다. 본 연구에서는 예비 연구에서 선정된 어휘를 바탕으로 설문지를 개발하였다. 고안된 설문지는 10명의 언어치료사에게 어휘 중요도를 Likert 척도로 평정하였다.

결과:

연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 기초 학습 어휘는 언어치료사가 응답한 중요도 평정 평균이 3.0이상인 어휘로 구성하였다. 학령기 언어장애 중재를 위한 기초학습 어휘 수는 최종 514개였다. 둘째, 품사에 따른 기초 어휘의 비율의 순은 명사의 비율 49.8%로, 동사의 비율은 21.6%, 형용사는 11.6% 순으로 나타났다. 이는 학령기 중재를 위한 기초 어휘의 대부분을 명사, 동사, 형용사가 차지하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 셋째, 총 514개 기초어휘를 17개의 범주에 따라 분류하였다. 어휘 분포를 살펴보면, 전체적으로 행위와 기타 영역의 비율이 높았다. 범주에 따른 기초어휘 백분율은 행위 20.8%, 기타 16.2% 등으로 나타났다.

결론:

본 연구의 결과의 어휘 목록을 바탕으로 중요도, 품사 별로, 범주 별로 제시한 기초 어휘를 바탕으로 학령기 언어장애 아동들의 치료에 적용하고, 다양한 문맥에서 중재한다면 보다 효율적인 어휘 습득이 이루어질 것이다.


Keywords: School age, language disorder, vocabulary
키워드: 학령기, 언어장애, 어휘

Ⅰ. Introduction

A vocabulary is 'a set of words used within a certain range.' Currently, in Korean language education, the terms of fundamental vocabulary, basic vocabulary, and educational basic vocabulary differ slightly by researchers (Kim, 2003; Lee, 1998). However, vocabulary that is generally used in everyday life and used frequently, is called basic vocabulary. Since all the vocabulary in the Korean dictionary can not be used for language therapy or clinical practice, the vocabulary should be selected according to the purpose of use and used for instruction, education, and treatment. Therefore, it is required to construct the basic vocabulary list of language disorders of school age according to age, level and purpose of language use.

In particular, as children in school age continue to develop language in terms of syntax, semantics, and pragmatic approach, and their cognitive and learning needs are also increased, they are not significantly different from the previous period, but the expansion or difference in developmental speed is apparent. According to Owen (1999), as children of school age become first graders in elementary school, the development of vocabulary becomes remarkable under the influence of school education. For the first grade of elementary school, on average, the vocabulary of expression increases to 2,000 words, and the comprehension ability increases to 20,000~24,000 words, and they make and use complex sentences. A study was conducted to estimate the vocabulary of school-age children, and it was found that vocabulary increased significantly between grades 3 and 5 compared to grades 1 to 3 in elementary school (Owens, 1999).

School age is a time when vocabulary continues to grow, and understanding of the vocabulary also continues to grow. School-age children understand and use expressions such as antonyms, hyponyms, synonyms, metaphors, or analogy, which makes vocabulary more accurate and richer, and makes it easier to find words when needed (Chung & Shim, 2019; Paul & Courtenay, 2013; Yoon & Chung, 2019). In addition, the language of communication required in the school classroom is different from the pre-school age rules in terms of situations and communication, which causes a great change in the language of children.

According to a study that measured the overall vocabulary development ability of Korean school-age children, the number of vocabulary expressed and accepted continue to rise even after entering elementary school, peaking in the fourth grade. Children with language disorder in school age do not develop vocabulary at their age level properly during school age. Therefore, in the course of treatment or clinical guidance, it is regarded as a very important matter as to how to use and what vocabulary to mediate. In addition, the treatment room considers that improving the acquisition of the target vocabulary is important for language improvement and is actually investing a lot of time in treatment the vocabulary (Rivers, 1981).

In particular, the basic vocabulary according to the development of school age should be provided for language therapy for children with speech development disorders and for teaching vocabulary in school education for normal children. In elementary, middle and high school education, research on educational vocabulary according to the curriculum (Jo, 2003) was conducted. Recently, vocabulary research has been conducted in terms of language resources through the development of various software (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 2012; National Institute of Korean Language, 2005). Language resources are established not only in vocabulary but also in various linguistic aspects, but most of them are limited to the lower grades of elementary school or 1st grade. In addition, these previous studies mainly considered the aspect of vocabulary development, but basic vocabulary should consider frequency of use, part-of-speech, and category in everyday life (Chang et al., 2013). Vocabulary development in school age has a great influence on the development of other language components, but vocabulary research on the basic vocabulary of school age is very insufficient.

In addition, in the field of language rehabilitation, a list of essential vocabulary or various language treatment programs are being developed in complementary communication for children with severe disabilities, but the criteria for vocabulary selection are not clear (Kim et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2005; Park, 2013). Research is also being conducted on vocabulary of multicultural children of school age, vocabulary development (Jeong, 2016), vocabulary knowledge-based task (Ahn et al., 2018; Kim & Kwon, 2018; Oh & Kim, 2014), Academic Vocabulary instruction multicultural children (Kim, 2012). A standardized vocabulary list for the normal development process was created and used for the diagnosis and evaluation of as Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test (REVT, Kim et al., 2009) and Korean version-Boston Naming Test for Children (K-BNT-C, Kim & Na, 2007) of school-age children with language disorders. However, this is not a list of treatment or clinical basic vocabulary because it is for diagnostic evaluation, not the purpose of basic vocabulary selection.

Most studies on vocabulary treatment to date have focused on which vocabulary and how to treat (Kang & Jung, 2019; Kim & Yim, 2019; Park & Park, 2018; Park & Yim, 2019). However, when improving the vocabulary by teaching according to the level of vocabulary development is the final goal, deciding which vocabulary to teach should be given priority. The basic vocabulary selection for school-age children will be the basic data for treatment according to the level of target children. Therefore, this study aims to provide a basic vocabulary for effective vocabulary instruction in the treatment of children with language disorders in school age.


Ⅱ. Methods
1. Preliminary Research
1) Subject

The vocabulary selection method of this study was selected as an objective method and a subjective method using quantitative information. The primary basic vocabulary was selected as an eclectic method of comparing between vocabulary lists. This revised and supplemented the vocabulary selection method of Chang et al. (2013) study.

To select basic vocabulary for school-age children. Vocabulary used in the following language tests was collected and common vocabulary was selected. Language tests was selected as Language Scale for School-aged Children (LSSC, Lee et al., 2014), Korean Language-based Reading Assessment (KOLRA, Pae et al., 2015), Receptive & Expressive Vocabulary Test (REVT, Kim et al., 2009). These test tools were selected as standardized test tools commonly used in vocabulary evaluation of children with language disorder in school age. The test items of LSSC (Lee et al., 2014) were analyzed, and vocabularies of hyponyms, antonyms, and synonyms were extracted. The test items of KOLRA (Pae et al., 2015) were analyzed, and vocabularies of reading fluency, semantic words, and decoding phonological rules were extracted. The receptive vocabularies and expression vocabularies of the REVT (Kim et al., 2009) were extracted and analyzed. The vocabulary classifies the selected vocabulary based on these diagnostic tools and the vocabulary list.

In addition, the grade A vocabularies selected in the study of the Korean vocabulary results report (Jo, 2003) of study on the elementary school reading textbook vocabulary (Kim, 2004), which is a list of vocabulary created through extensive research, were compared. The list of vocabulary for learning was divided into A, B, C, D, and E grades according to the frequency and difficulty in Jo (2003) study 'Vocabulary Results Report for Korean Learning'. 617 vocabulary words from Kim (2004) study on elementary school textbook vocabulary were extracted and used.

2) Principles and standards of vocabulary selection

The principle of selecting basic vocabulary was based on the level of development and applied the principles of usefulness, efficiency, and step-by-step (Lee, 1996). The principle of usefulness is to select vocabulary that is used in real life by infants and toddlers. The principle of efficiency means selecting a vocabulary as a basic vocabulary that can achieve teaching-learning goals with minimal investment without wasting effort or time. The principle of step-by-step is to select by considering the step-by-step of vocabulary development.

Based on these principles, specific vocabulary selection criteria differ according to purpose and selection method. In this study the selection criteria were defined as follows (Lee, 1996): First, vocabulary with high importance, importance is intended to consider frequency and familiarity. second, vocabulary used effectively in everyday life, third, basic vocabulary used in school life, and fourth, vocabulary suitable for vocabulary development.

3) Reliability and validity

The basic vocabularies selected for the treatment of school-aged children with language disorders were entered into the Microsoft (MS) Excel program. In addition, to see the reliability of the recorded vocabulary, it was checked whether the researcher with a PhD. majored in language therapy, who has had over 10 years of experience in clinical practice for speech therapy analyzed the vocabulary list and input vocabulary correctly.

In addition, three expert advisers conducted to examine the validity of the vocabulary list. The expert advisors reviewed first, whether the vocabulary is suitable for children with school-age language disorders, second, whether vocabulary is presented correctly, and third, whether some vocabularies are excluded though they should be included.

4) Vocabulary analysis result

To find out the degree of vocabulary distribution, a method of counting the cumulative frequency of each individual vocabulary was applied. Even if the same vocabulary appears many times, it was counted as one vocabulary. The number of vocabulary of LSSC (Lee et al., 2014) was 148 in total. The number of vocabulary of the KOLRA (Pae et al., 2015) was 111 in total. The number of REVT (Kim et al., 2009) was 380 in total. In addition, 982 A-level vocabularies were selected in the study of the “Report of vocabulary for learning Korean languages (Jo, 2003).” 617 vocabulary words were also selected in the Study on elementary school reading textbook vocabulary (Kim, 2004).

Among the entire vocabulary of the study subjects, the vocabulary common to all study subjects was one. There were 18 vocabularies commonly found in 4 or more subjects, and 63 vocabularies commonly found in 3 or more subjects. In this study, a total of 524 vocabularies common to two or more subjects were selected.

The 524 selected vocabularies were checked by 3 expert advisers. Through this process, the vocabulary that is not suitable for the basic vocabulary for treatment of children with language disorders in school age is deleted and corrected, and the final selected vocabulary is 517. It was divided into parts of speech selected for preliminary research, and it is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. 
Distribution by part of speech in vocabulary
Part of speech Frequency of vocabulary Percentage
Noun 255 49.3
Pronoun  11  2.1
Numeral  17  3.2
Verb 107 20.8
Adjective  66 12.8
Determiner  13  2.6
Adverb  44  8.6
Interjection   4   .6
Total 517 100

2. Main Research

The validity test was verified for language therapists who are treating children of school-age to determine whether the appropriate vocabularies were selected and they are appropriate for treatment of school-age children with language disorders.

1) Research subject

The basic vocabulary list was prepared based on preliminary studies for the treatment of school-age children with language disorders. The validity test was conducted by surveying 10 language therapists. The subjects of the questionnaire were 7 women and 3 men, the age of participants was 30-37 years, and the average age was 34.3 years. The residence was 7 in Daegu Gyeongbuk and 3 in Busan Gyeongnam. Also, The subjects of the questionnaire The subjects of the questionnaire majored in language therapy at university, and are currently conducting language therapy for school-age children.

2) Research tool

The vocabulary list was selected based on preliminary research. The questionnaire was categorized by 17 parts of speech. This vocabulary list was composed to form the final questionnaire through the review of the revised questions by 3 advisers. Advisors give lectures on language development and language development disorders at universities.

3) Data collection

Subjects were asked to evaluate how important the vocabulary presented in the questionnaire was to treat language disorders in school age. Using the Likert scale, a speech therapist directly rated with 5 points for ‘Very important’ for vocabulary training for children with language disorders in school age and 1 point for 'Not important at all.'

4) Analysis of results

Descriptive statistics were performed using the mean and standard deviation for the collected content. According to the results of the analysis, only vocabularies with an average importance of 4.0 or higher were extracted. Researchers analyzed basic vocabulary by importance, part-of-speech, and category for easy and comfortable use of treatment for school-age children with language disorders.


Ⅲ. Results
1. Basic Vocabulary by Importance

If the basic vocabulary is divided into grade A, B, and C according to importance, vocabularies with an average importance of 4.5 or higher were rated as grade A by speech therapists. Grade A vocabulary can be said to be a very important vocabulary when applying treatment to school-age children with speech disorders. Grade B is a vocabulary with a mean value of 4.0 or higher, and grade C is a vocabulary with a mean value of 3.0 or higher. Based on these criteria, grade A vocabularies are 451, grade B are 45, and grade C are 18 vocabularies.

The number of basic learning vocabularies for the treatment of speech disorders in the final school age was 514, which were selected by vocabularies with an average importance score of 3.0 or higher in response of speech therapists. The vocabulary whose importance was less than 3.0 in average was deleted from the 'Basic Vocabulary List for Treatment of School-Age Children with Language Disorders.' It was a total of 3 out of 514 selected in the preliminary study, representing 0.6% (Table 2).

Table 2. 
Distribution of basic vocabulary words by importance
Grade Importance Frequency of vocabulary Percentage
A 4.6∼ 451 87.2
B 4.0∼4.5  45  8.7
C 3.0∼3.9  18  3.5
Other 2.0∼   3   .6
Total 517 100

2. Basic Vocabulary by Parts of Speech

Table 3 shows the distribution of the basic vocabulary according to part-of-speech vocabulary list for treatment of school-aged children with speech disorders. A list of basic vocabulary classifications according to parts of speech for the treatment of school-aged children with speech disorders is presented in Appendix 1.

Table 3. 
Distribution of basic vocabulary words by part of speech
Part of speech Frequency of vocabulary Percentage
Noun 256 49.8
Pronoun  11  2.2
Numeral  17  3.3
Verb 111 21.6
Adjective  60 11.6
Determiner  12  2.4
Adverb  43  8.3
Interjection   4   .8
Total 514 100

When analyzing the vocabulary distribution, there were 256 nouns, 111 verbs, 60 adjectives, 43 adverbs, 12 determiner, 11 pronouns, 4 interjections, and 17 numerals out of a total of 514 basic vocabularies.

The proportion of basic vocabulary according to parts of speech was 49.8% for nouns, 21.6% for verbs, and 11.6% for adjectives. It was found that nouns, verbs, and adjectives occupy most of the basic vocabulary for school-age treatment.

3. Basic Vocabulary by Category

The basic vocabulary of school-aged children with speech disorders was classified according to categories that could be another criterion for treatment, and the distribution of the basic vocabulary according to the categories is shown in Table 4. A list of basic vocabulary classified by category for treatment of school-aged children with speech disorders is presented in Appendix 2.

Table 4. 
Distribution of basic vocabulary words by category
Category Frequency of vocabulary Percentage
Act 107 20.8
State  69 13.4
Object  46  8.9
Time  42  8.2
Person  36  7.2
Body  19  3.6
Place  16  3.2
Food  19  3.6
Nature  17  3.4
Degree  12  2.3
Clothing  10  1.9
Location  10  1.9
Learning   9  1.7
Transportation   8  1.6
Animal   6  1.2
Conjunction   5   .9
Other  83 16.2
Total 514 100

A total of 514 basic vocabularies were classified according to 17 categories, including the category of others. In the vocabulary distribution, the category of action and state was generally high. The next is, in order, object, time, person, body, place, food, nature, food, nature, degree, clothing, location, learning, transportation, animal, conjunction, other. The percentage of basic vocabulary according to category was 20.8% for action, and 16.2% for other.

In the vocabularies by category, it can be seen that the vocabulary that can be experienced and easily experienced in the daily life of school-aged children is different from the basic vocabulary of adults and the basic vocabulary of pre-school age.


Ⅳ. Discussion

This study aims to provide a basic vocabulary for effective vocabulary instruction in the treatment of children with speech disorders in school age. For vocabulary selection, LSSC (Lee et al., 2014), KOLRA (Pae et al., 2015), REVT (Kim et al., 2009), Result report for Korean learning vocabulary (Jo, 2003) and Vocabulary study of elementary school reading textbook (Kim, 2004) were analyzed to confirm the validity through a speech therapist to construct a vocabulary list.

Summarizing the results of the study, the number of basic learning vocabulary words for the treatment of speech disorders in the final school age was 514, selected only from vocabularies with an average score of 3.0 or higher. In previous studies, the research was conducted using vocabulary related words (Kim, 2003; Kim, 2004; Kim, 2005; Jo, 2003). It is significant that in order to present the basic vocabulary list of children with speech disorders in the school age, children with speech disorders in the actual school age applied standardized content related to vocabulary development of children with speech disorders, including the words of vocabulary-related test. In addition, in the previous study, as 618 vocabulary lists were presented in Kim (2004) study and 982 in Jo (2003) study, and Kim (2003) suggested less than 2000, there were differences in the number of vocabulary required. It can be seen that this depends on the research purpose, research object, and research criteria. It shows that depending on the diversity and specificity of the vocabulary, it will not be possible to select all of them as basic vocabulary. This study is significant in that it is presented according to the importance of vocabulary treatment for speech disorders in school age. Based on this, it can be selected and used according to the purpose of treating speech disorders according to importance.

Second, when analyzing the vocabulary distribution selected as the basic vocabulary for speech disorders in school age, the proportion of nouns was 49.8%, the proportion of verbs was 21.6%, and the adjective was 11.6%. It was found that nouns, verbs, and adjectives occupy most of the basic vocabulary for school-age treatment. These results were the same as those in the previous study Chang et al. (2003), which had a large proportion in the order of noun adjectives. In particular, nouns are distributed in almost half of the vocabulary. Looking at a child's early acquisition vocabulary may be based on the hypothesis that a noun with a specific reference of a child is first developed (Nelson, 1973). Nouns have a lot of categories in the basic vocabulary list because they refer to concrete objects, they are easy to perceive, they have related and hierarchically organized semantic structures, and they are easily perceived and acquired cognitively. In addition to nouns, other parts of speech can also be seen as an important basic vocabulary for treating school-age children. Therefore, based on the basic vocabulary suggested by each part of speech in this study, it will be applied to the treatment of children with speech disorders in school-age and treatment in various contexts will lead to more effective vocabulary acquisition.

Lastly, as a result of analyzing the basic vocabulary for the treatment of children with speech disorders in school age according to the category, it could be classified into 17 categories. Looking at the vocabulary distribution, the areas of behavior and status were high. Then, the next categories were object, time, person, body, place, food, nature, degree, clothing, location, learning, transportation, animals, and conjunction, in order. The difference from the study of Chang et al. (2003) was found to be due to the differences in the age of the subjects, categories such as vocabulary related to learning and school were added in this study. The categories related to learning could be classified into basic vocabulary reflecting the daily life of school-aged children. The basic vocabulary is analyzed and presented according to categories to provide convenience in vocabulary treatment for school-age children. Categorization is the classification of various objects and phenomena according to the similarity of attributes in the acquisition of vocabulary (Kim, 2005), which is an important element in adapting to everyday life as a concept belonging to the concept of classification. Treatment guides can be provided based on the vocabulary list of children with speech disorders children in school age with these categorization attributes.

Based on the results of the study, this study suggested the basic vocabulary for the treatment of speech disorders in school age, but since it was based on limited research, subsequent studies related to it are required. In addition, although it was validated by 10 experts, it is considered that if the clinical opinions were collected more in the further researches, it will greatly contribute to vocabulary treatment of speech disorders in school age. This study is divided into A, B, and C according to the importance of vocabulary, but this is composed of the opinions of 10 speech therapists. However, the importance of vocabulary has limitations as a result of questionnaire surveys for adults regardless of actual frequency of use and appearance.


Acknowledgments

This work was supported by research funds of Catholic University of Pusan (2019).

이 연구는 2019학년도 부산가톨릭대학교의 교내연구비 지원을 받아 수행된 연구임.


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Appendix 1. 
Vocabulary list parts of speech
품사 어휘목록
명사 가방, 가슴, 가을, 가족, 가지, 가축, 간호사, 강, 거, 걱정, 건강, 게임, 겨울, 경찰, 고등학생, 고양이, 고향, 곳, 공, 공부, 공원, 공책, 과자, 교실, 구경, 구두, 공항, 구름, 그네, 그릇, 과일, 그림, 금성, 기둥, 기쁨, 기차, 꽃, 꿈, 나라, 발톱, 밤, 밥, 나무, 나비, 돼지, 뒤, 날씨, 낮, 내일, 냉장고, 넥타이, 년, 노래, 누나, 눈, 다리, 다음, 달, 달걀, 달러, 대답, 대학생, 도로, 동생, 동안, 때, 떡, 뜀틀, 마음만, 국기, 말, 말씀, 밖, 망원경, 머리, 며칠, 모두, 목, 목요일, 못, 무릎, 문, 물, 물건, 미끄럼틀, 밑, 바나나, 바다, 바람, 바퀴, 반, 반찬, 발, 방, 방문, 방충망, 방학, 배, 버섯, 버스, 별, 병, 병원, 보리, 볼펜, 봄, 부모, 부엌, 북, 불꽃놀이, 비, 비누, 비행기, 뺨, 사과, 사다리, 사람, 사랑, 사이, 사탕, 산, 살, 삼월, 선생님, 새, 생각, 생일, 생활, 소금, 소년, 소리, 속, 손, 수박, 수영, 수요일, 숙제, 술, 숲, 시간, 시계, 시소, 시장, 아이스크림, 요즘, 우산, 신문, 신발, 십이월, 십일월, 쓰레기, 아기, 아래, 아버지, 아빠, 아이, 오후, 아저씨, 아줌마, 아파트, 안, 안경, 알, 앞, 약속, 양말, 어깨, 어머니, 어제, 언니, 얼굴, 엄마, 여름, 여행, 연기, 연필, 옆, 옛날, 오늘, 오랜만, 오빠, 외국인, 옷, 우체국, 운동, 운동화, 위, 음식, 이, 이름, 인사, 일본, 일요일, 입, 잎, 자리, 자전거, 작년, 잠, 잠자리채, 장갑, 장미, 장소, 장화, 재미, 전, 전화, 점심, 접시, 제일, 주, 주스, 주전자, 줄, 지우개, 질문, 집, 차, 책, 책상, 처음, 춤, 치마, 친구, 침대, 칫솔, 컴퓨터, 컵, 코, 콜라, 키, 타원, 택시, 토요일, 파란색, 팔, 편지, 포도, 폭포, 하늘, 학교, 학생, 한글, 한자, 할머니, 할아버지, 해, 허리, 혀, 협동, 형, 호랑이, 혼자, 화, 환자, 힘 등
동사 가다, 가르치다, 가지다, 가져오다, 감사하다, 걱정하다, 걷다, 걸다, 계시다, 공부하다, 구르다, 그리다, 기다리다, 깎다, 끝나다, 나가다, 나다, 날다, 낳다, 내다, 내리다, 놀다, 놀라다, 놀리다, 늦다, 놓다, 다니다, 달리다, 대답하다, 던지다, 되다, 생각하다, 드리다, 듣다, 들다, 따다, 따르다, 떠나다, 뛰다, 마시다, 만나다, 만들다, 말다, 말씀하다, 말하다, 먹다, 모르다, 못하다, 묻다, 받다, 배우다, 버리다, 벗다, 보다, 부르다, 불다, 사다, 사랑하다, 사용하다, 살다, 생기다, 서다, 쉬다, 시작되다, 시작하다, 식사하다, 신다, 심다, 싸우다, 쓰다, 쓰다듬다, 앉다, 않다, 알다, 알리다, 알아보다, 읽다, 연습하다, 열다, 오다, 오르다, 올라가다, 지내다, 운전하다, 울다, 웃다, 인사하다, 죽다, 일어나다, 일하다, 잃어버리다, 입다, 있다, 자다, 자르다, 잡다, 전화하다, 좋아하다, 주다, 준비하다, 찢다, 찾다, 초대하다, 추다, 추수하다, 축하하다, 치다, 침몰하다, 켜다, 타다, 하다 등
형용사 가볍다, 같다, 걱정하다, 건강하다, 고맙다, 괜찮다, 그렇다, 길다, 깨끗하다, 나쁘다, 넓다, 높다, 다르다, 덥다, 따뜻하다, 똑같다, 많다, 맑다, 멀다, 무겁다, 미안하다, 바르다, 바쁘다, 반갑다, 배부르다, 부드럽다, 비슷하다, 빠르다, 뾰족하다, 쉽다, 슬프다, 시끄럽다, 시원하다, 싫다, 싶다, 싸다, 아니다, 아름답다, 아프다, 안녕하다, 피곤하다, 어떠하다, 어떻다, 어렵다, 없다, 예쁘다, 위험하다, 이렇다, 즐겁다, 작다, 재미있다, 적다, 젊다, 좋다, 중요하다, 짧다, 춥다, 크다, 필요하다, 힘들다 등
대명사 거기, 그, 나, 너, 누구, 무엇, 어디, 여러분, 우리, 저, 저것 등
부사 가끔, 가장, 갑자기, 같이, 곧, 그래서, 그러나, 그러니까, 그런데, 그럼, 그리고, 너무, 다시, 또, 매우, 매일, 바로, 빨리, 서로, 아니, 아주, 아직, 어서, 언제, 언제나, 얼마나, 열심히, 오래, 왜, 이제, 일찍, 자주, 잘, 잠깐, 잠시, 정말, 조금, 좀, 지금, 참, 천천히, 하지만, 함께, 등
관형사 네, 다른, 만, 몇, 무슨, 세, 아무, 어느, 어떤, 이런, 천, 한 등
감탄사 그래, 뭐, 안녕, 아 등
수사 구, 넷째, 다섯, 다섯째, 둘, 둘째, 백, 셋, 셋째, 스물, 십, 아홉, 여덟, 여섯, 오, 첫째, 하나 등

Appendix 2. 
Vocabulary list addition category
범주 어휘목록
행위 가다, 가르치다, 낳다, 가져오다, 걷다, 걸다, 계시다, 공부하다, 구르다, 그리다, 깍다, 끝나다, 나가다, 나다, 내다, 노래, 놀리다, 놓다, 대답. 대답하다, 던지다, 되다, 드리다, 듣다, 기다리다. 들다, 따다, 따르다, 떠나다, 뛰다, 마시다, 내리다, 만들다, 그렇다, 말다, 말씀하다, 말하다, 먹다, 날다, 모르다, 묻다, 받다, 배우다, 버리다, 벗다, 보다, 부르다, 불다, 사과, 사다, 사용하다, 생각하다, 생기다, 서다, 쉬다, 시작되다, 시작하다, 놀다, 놀라다, 식사하다, 신다, 심다, 싸우다, 쓰다, 쓰다듬다, 앉다, 않다, 알다, 알리다, 알아보다, 연습하다, 다니다, 달리다, 열다, 오다, 오르다, 올라가다, 운전하다, 울다, 웃다, 인사하다, 일어나다, 일하다, 읽다, 잃어버리다, 입다, 자다, 자르다, 잡다, 전화하다, 좋아하다, 주다, 죽다, 준비하다, 만나다, 지내다, 찢다, 찾다, 초대하다, 추다, 추수하다, 축하하다, 치다, 침몰하다, 켜다, 타다, 하다, 협동 등
상태 가볍다, 가지다, 감사하다, 높다, 늦다, 같다, 걱정하다, 건강하다, 고맙다, 괜찮다, 기쁨, 길다, 깨끗하다, 나쁘다, 넓다, 다르다, 덥다, 똑같다, 많다, 맑다, 멀다, 못하다, 무겁다, 미안하다 바르다, 바쁘다, 반갑다, 배부르다, 부드럽다, 비슷하다, 빠르다, 뾰족한, 사랑, 사랑하다, 살다, 쉽다, 슬프다, 시끄럽다, 시원하다, 싫다, 싶다, 싸다, 아니다, 아름답다, 따뜻하다, 아프다, 좋다, 안녕하다, 춥다, 필요하다, 어떠하다, 중요하다, 어떻다, 어렵다, 없다, 예쁘다, 위험하다, 이렇다, 크다, 있다, 작다, 재미있다, 적다, 젊다, 즐겁다, 짧다, 피곤하다, 힘들다 등
사물 공, 그네, 그릇, 그림, 기둥, 나라, 냉장고, 뜀틀, 마음, 만국기, 망원경, 못, 문, 물, 물건, 미끄럼틀, 방문, 방충망, 병, 북, 불꽃놀이, 비누, 사다리, 생활, 소리, 수영, 시계, 시소, 신문, 쓰레기, 안경, 알, 여행, 연기, 우산, 잠, 잠자리채, 전화, 접시, 주전자, 줄, 침대, 칫솔, 컵, 편지, 한글, 한자 등
시간 가끔, 가을, 갑자기, 겨울, 곧, 낮, 내일, 동안, 때, 매일, 며칠, 목요일, 바로, 밤, 방학, 봄, 수요일, 아직, 어서, 어제, 언제, 언제나, 얼마나, 여름, 옛날, 오늘, 오래, 오랜만, 오후, 요즘, 이제, 일요일, 일찍, 자주, 작년, 잠깐, 잠시, 전, 점심, 지금, 처음, 토요일 등
사람 가족, 경찰, 간호사, 고등학생, 그, 나, 너, 누구, 누나, 대학생, 동생, 모두, 부모, 사람, 선생님, 소년, 아기, 아버지, 아빠, 아이, 아저씨, 아줌마, 어머니, 언니, 엄마, 여러분, 오빠, 외국인, 우리, 저, 친구, 학생, 할머니, 할아버지, 형, 환자 등
신체 가슴, 눈, 다리, 머리, 목, 무릎, 발, 발톱, 뺨, 손, 어깨, 얼굴, 이, 입, 코, 키, 팔, 허리, 혀 등
장소 고향, 공원, 공항, 교실, 도로, 방, 병원, 부엌, 시장, 아파트, 우체국, 일본, 자리, 장소, 집, 학교 등
음식 과일, 과자, 달걀, 떡, 반찬, 바나나, 밥, 버섯, 보리, 사과, 사탕, 소금, 수박, 술, 아이스크림, 음식, 주스, 콜라, 포도 등
자연 강, 구름, 꽃, 나무, 별, 날씨, 달, 바다, 바람, 산, 숲, 비, 잎, 장미, 폭포, 하늘, 해 등
정도 가장, 너무, 다시, 또, 매우, 반, 빨리, 잘, 조금, 좀, 참, 천천히 등
위치 아래, 곳, 뒤, 밑, 위, 밖, 속, 안, 앞, 옆 등
의류 가방, 신발, 구두, 넥타이, 양말, 옷, 운동화, 장갑, 장화, 치마 등
학습 공부, 공책, 볼펜, 숙제, 연필, 지우개, 책, 책상, 컴퓨터 등
교통 기차, 바퀴, 배, 버스, 비행기, 자전거, 차, 택시 등
동물 가축, 고양이, 나비, 돼지, 새, 호랑이 등
연결 그래서, 그러나, 그러니까, 그런데, 그리고 등
기타 가지, 같이, 개, 거기, 걱정, 건강, 것, 게임, 그래, 그럼, 구경, 꿈, 네, 넷째, 년, 다른, 다섯, 다섯째, 다음, 달러, 둘째, 때문, 마리, 말, 말씀, 만, 몇, 무슨, 무엇, 뭐, 백, 번, 사이, 살, 삼월, 생각, 생일, 서로, 세, 셋째, 수, 스물, 시간, 십, 십이월, 십일월, 아, 아니, 아무, 아주, 아홉, 안녕, 어느, 약속, 어디, 어떤. 여섯, 열심히, 오, 운동, 왜, 월, 이, 이런, 이름, 인사, 일, 저것, 정말, 제일, 주. 질문, 쪽, 춤, 타원, 파란색, 하지만, 한, 함께, 혼자, 화, 힘 등